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Cakera Keras (Hard Disk)

Memuatkan Pemacu Cakera Keras

Kabel berbentuk ribbon dan penyambung bekalan kuasa disambungkan kepada cakera keras.

Sebelum installation, tentukan cakera yang mana satu digunakan untuk but. Cakera but akan disambungkan kepada primary hard disk controller.

Ubahkan jumper pada cakera keras untuk menjadikannya MASTER atau PRIMARY.

Banyak cakera keras baru menggunakan label MA, SL, dan CS pilih pin MA.

Cakera kerass kedua akan dikonfigurasi sebagai pemacu SLAVE atau SECONDARY.

Pilih jumper SL pins pada cakera keras ini.

Setelah selesai, pemacu cakera boleh disambungkan dengan menggunakan kabel ribbon 40 pin dan seterusnya sambungkan kabel bekalan kuasa.

Tip: Pin 1 pada kabel ribbon mestilah bersebelahan dengan kabel bekalan kuasa.

 

Menyediakan cakera keras boleh but (bootable).

Beberapa tahun dulu semasa DOS 3.X, partisi cakera keras mempunyai nilai maksimum 32 MB. Satu lagi masalah utama ialah cakera keras yang melebihi 512 MB di mana driver atau program FDISK tertentu diperlukan.

Sebelum anda menyediakan cakera keras, pastikan anda mempunyai BIOS yang dapat mengenal cakera keras anda.

 For those of you who like to know the inside of your hard disk, read on. The IDE and EIDE drives out there all have translating codes built-in to their controllers. This is evident by the fact that there are absolutely ZERO hard disks made now that actually have 16 physical read/write heads. Two to six is common.

Curiously, the BIOS does one translation for the operating system, and then the drive itself further translates it. The goofy part comes when you try to discover a drive's track-to-track seek speed, when the physical tracks are difficult to decipher from the sector-to-sector speeds without a lot of extra work. And since the hard disk manufacturers have smartened up to squeeze every ounce of capacity of the disks, the physical sectors per track vary from the inside to the outside of the disk. This factor makes data transfer speeds near the outer edge of the disk (near sector 0) perhaps 30% faster than transfer rates at the inner edge.

PIO Modes and DMA Modes.

Each successive PIO mode translates to higher theoretical drive-to-controller speeds, although no drive on the market will sustain these rates. Take for instance my 12X CD-ROM drive with a Mode 3 interface - there is no way it can sustain more than 1.8 MB/sec, so why the Mode 3 interface? Only in the case of the massive cache hit will this ability ever come into play.

ATA-33, DMA/33, Ultra ATA, or Ultra DMA are all names I've seen used for "Mode 5" drives on the market. These disks have doubled the speed of Mode 4 to 33 MB/sec. Intel 430TX and 440LX chipset motherboards support this type of hard disk.

After writing nearly this entire "how-to," I needed to find out the exact speeds of PIO and DMA modes, so I tried Western Digital's web site. There is a very good description of hard disk specs here, which duplicates a lot of what I have said. Please understand that I read these

white papers after writing this, and that any similar content should not be construed as a copyright infringement, but merely that I know a lot about hard disks.

The "normal" way to prepare a hard disk is to

All right, back to partitioning. I will only discuss DOS's fdisk.

Under DOS, the first physical disk will have a primary partition for drive C:, plus extended partitions if you have any additional hard disk drive letters. Inside the extended partition, you may have one or more hard disk drive letters.

If you have more physical hard disks, you may have either another primary partition as above, or simply one extended partition (the primary partition is optional).

The advantage of having a primary partition is that you can take this drive to another computer and make it bootable. Only a primary partition can be made bootable, and only the first physical drive can be bootable. So if you don't have a primary partition, you will have to rerun fdisk.exe and reformat the drive to make it bootable.

There is an option in fdisk to make a partition bootable. Curiously, the primary partition is not necessarily the first partition, but usually it is unless there is another OS or you have a CHEAPO proprietary computer without a ROM Setup and instead has a 3 MB partition on the hard disk to store Setup files - Compaq comes to mind.

But I haven't spoken of the magic of partitioning - deciding on the size of your disks. Since I have always owned computers that had at least two partitions (often homegrown), and you may have grown up with one big, fat C: drive, we may differ on this issue.

But there is a beauty in smaller, more efficient hard disks. I separate my disks by function, such as windows, games, backup, modem software, utilities, and other categories. I give them names like Big_Daddy, Big_Kahuna, Games, Entropy, Macarena, and other bazare things. I presently prefer disks in the 400 to 1000 MB size (up from 30, 60, and 250 MB). As always, I've considered drive C: sacred, reserved for Windows-specific programs and files needed to boot the PC.

During installation, I'll usually force a program into the E: or F: drive's root directory, instead of C:\Program Files\Brandname (in Win95) or in C:\WINDOWS\BRANDNAME (in Win 3.x). Enough on the sanctity of drive C:, just partition your hard disks as you see fit.

Recently, I have discovered just what all the hype about OSR2 is. This is the version of Windows called Windows 95 B, or DOS 7.10, or version 4.0.1111. All of the above mean that your OS has a new partitioning format called FAT32 and allows for a partition size of up to 2 TB. FAT12 and FAT16 are the older styles. The other advantage for FAT32 is a direct result of the larger partitions: the disks will use space more efficiently. There are no other advantages. The FAT32 drives are not faster; they have smaller cluster sizes which actually increase the overhead of disk activity. The new cluster sizes are:

In order to use Win95B to partition, there are a few tricks I know. When I got Win95B on floppy (yes, legitamately), I booted from disk 0 and ran a fdisk. When Win95B's fdisk runs, the first thing it does is ask you is "Do you wish to enable large hard disk support?" If you want a FAT32 partition, answer Yes. Then, if your hard disk is over 512 MB, it will automatically use FAT32. Later, you will need to boot from a Win95B floppy and run format c: /s

Even if you didn't allow large hard disk support, this is the best way to install Win95B - on a completely empty hard disk.

One of the problems you will run into on partitioning is adding another physical hard disk to a current system. You will find out that DOS assigns the first hard disk's primary partition drive C: and the primary partition of the second physical hard disk as drive D:. This causes a lot of people a lot of strife because it's nonintuitive.

It also keeps some installed software from working when drive D: changes its identity. Similar problems may arise when adding a CD-ROM in a SCSI environment where drivers are used to make drive letters. CD-ROM's, though, can usually be forced into a certain drive letter using the driver switches or Windows NT/95's device settings.

Oh yeah, after partitioning the hard disk, you will have to format each drive letter.

 What are the limitations?

EIDE can have a maximum of 16 heads, 65535 cylinders, and 63 sectors/cluster. Your BIOS can usually have up to 128 heads but only 1023 or 4095 cylinders. The problem can usually be solved through translating by the BIOS or 3rd party software.

Typical confusing equivalencies:

 Viral infections

Sometimes, a boot sector virus will overwrite your C: drive's partition table. Since this has a record of every hard disk's partitioning info, you will be unable to boot or read any hard disk. Simply boot from a floppy, run your virus scan/clean (you do have one, don't you?), and disinfect your partition table. Then, you should run fdisk and hope that you lost no data. If you have no virus software, try this (and don't come crying to me for trying to help, it's your virus):

Scuzzy Trick

SCSI disks won't boot in an IDE environment, right? I found this on the Tyan motherboard newsgroup on how to trick a SCSI disk to boot before an IDE drive if you use Win95, NT, or perhaps OS/2, Linux, or UNIX - YMMV. This was in response to an Adaptec 2940UW question on a Tyan Tomcat III motherboard.

 Chip May <chip@xnet.com> writes:

Note.. If you have IDE's installed as well, by setting them as "Not Installed" in BIOS means that you cannot access them if you boot right to a DOS prompt.

However, if you load Win95 or NT, these operating systems replace the disk BIOS with their own vxd's and "find" the "uninstalled" IDE's - after the boot process - and assign them the next letters available in the chain.

Adaptec insists that this method won't work - that you must boot from IDE's. But I've done this on many different computers and motherboards, including the Tomcat III, with great success.

This does not work with operating systems which don't provide their own disk BIOS (e.g. DOS 6 and lower, Win 3.x).